# There are 100,000,000,000,000 atoms in a single cell of a human cheek and a single hydrogen atom is 0.00000000024 meters. When talking about atoms and cells and a number of other things, numbers get very, very small and very, very large, requiring the use of way too many zeros.

Rather than writing that many noughts, mathematicians and scientists use a shorthand notation that replaces all of those zeros. Taking advantage of our numbering system that is based on the number 10, it’s easy to see that 1,000 is the same as 10 x 100 which is the same as 10 x 10 x 10. The notation they developed modified this from 10 x 10 x 10 to 103, pronounced ten to the third power or simply, ten to the third. That’s not all that useful for a thousand or even a hundred thousand. But when you’re dealing with the number of atoms in a cheek cell, it’s much easier to write 1014 than 100,000,000,000,000.
Mathematicians as far back as Nicole Oresme (c. 1323-1382) have been using exponential notation, though its use became much more widespread in the twentieth century in the 1940s and 1950s as computers were being introduced that could handle these kinds of numbers.
Scientists, looking at atoms and stars, needed a convenient way of noting these numbers and in the post-WWII era, a specific exponential notation, one in which specific numbers were multiplied by exponents of ten, became the standard and the term scientific notation was born. Rather than write 3,400,000,000,000,000, scientists would write 3.4 x 1015.
So there are 1014 cells in a human cheek cell and an average sized person has approximately 7 x 1027 atoms in their body. Numbers this large are beyond the ability of the human mind to fully grasp, but if we keep going, there are 7,000,000,000 people on Earth, so 4.9 x 1037 atoms make up the human race.
One step further and it is estimated that the entire planet is made up of 1.33 x 1050 atoms. That doesn’t sound like much more that the number used on the human race, but keep in mind that 1050 is 1037 multiplied by 10,000,000,000,000. Remember, each time you increase the exponent by one, you increase the number by a factor of ten.
Earth, the other planets, asteroids and other bodies in our solar system combined, make up less than two tenths of a percent (0.02%) of the solar system, the sun being the overwhelming mass. The number of atoms in the sun is 1.2 x 1057, or more than nine million times the number in the earth.
A typical galaxy has about 400 billion stars and it is estimated that there are 1069 atoms in an average galaxy. Finally, the universe, 80 billion galaxies large, contains around 1080 atoms total. That’s 100,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000 atoms.
Think that’s a large number? In a minute, you’ll think that’s insignificant.
A few of years ago, a couple of professors, Dr. Evil (Adam N. Elga) from Princeton and the Mexican Multiplier (Agustin Rayo) from MIT, not their real names, decided to have a Large Number Duel. The goal was to write the largest specific number ever written on a standard chalkboard. All mathematical notations were permissible with two rules. First, nothing cheap like “your number plus one” and it must be finite, simply meaning not using infinity.
The match began like a boxing match with Dr. Evil in the red corner and the Mexican Multiplier in the blue. Dr. Evil started simple: he wrote the numeral one. The Multiplier countered by writing a string of ones across the chalkboard. Evil came back by erasing a line through half of the ones, turning them into exclamation points. In mathematics this is the symbol for factorials.
A factorial is the product of a number multiplied by every counting number less that it. For instance, 9! is 9x8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 which is 362,880. 9!! is 362,880 x 362,879 x 362, 878 and so on. Remember, it’s estimated that the number of atoms in the universe is somewhere between, 1078 and 1082. The total number of atoms is closer to 9! than 9!!. Imagine how big a number would be with 9!!! or 9!!!! So think about how big a number that Dr. Evil wrote when he took half a chalkboard worth of ones and applied another half-chalkboard of factorials.
From there, the numbers got crazy big and most of the observers were unable to follow the complex mathematical calculations they were witnessing. One student even asked Evil if the number written on the board as a formula was even computable. Evil sheepishly said no.
Back and forth and back and forth until Dr. Evil finally fell to his knees acknowledging, “I’ve been crushed.”

****

If you Google “Profs Duke It Out in Big Number Duel,” you can read the MIT school newspaper’s report on the contest.

## Sunday, January 15, 2012

### Politician School

I sometimes wonder if politicians attend the same school on how to become successful in politics. I bet the syllabus is would claim to teach the following in the class Intro to Politics 101:

1. How to to raise large sums of money constantly.
2. How to to express your deep and heartfelt belief in the firm opposition to anything your opponent says, even if you agree with him or have no idea what he’s talking about.
3. How to make your opponent's comments sound like the opposite of what they said.
4. How to contradict yourself without sounding hypocritical.
5. How to speak for hours while saying nothing.
6. How to attack viciously your opponent while claiming he’s the attacker.
7. How to look and act like a leader.

## Monday, January 9, 2012

A relative of mine went to Radford University in the mountains of Virginia and my wife volunteered us to help move her into her dorm room one year. Actually, it was every year, but one year in particular she had a couch to move. But it wasn’t just a regular, run-of-the-mill couch – it was an enormous hide-a-bed. This thing must have weighed three thousand pounds and I had to carry both ends, uphill, both ways, 20 miles from the car to the dorm room, which was on the sixty-third floor with no elevator. It was five hundred degrees outside that day with fifteen feet of snow and there were oil slicks, smoke bombs and mine fields. Hyenas were attacking from the rear and hundreds of zombies in front not to mention the giant pterodactyls circling above.
Well, that’s the way I remember it.
Oddly, each time I tell that story, I seem to remember more and more of the horrific details. For instance, I just now remembered the lava. For some reason, I was barefoot and had to carry that couch over the lava streams oozing from a volcano that apparently was dormant for a hundred million years before that day and has been since and it was both oozing the molten rock and spewing it into the air. Fiery trails of smoke following the balls of bright orange up, up, up then back down on me as if aimed by NORAD.
I’m really very surprised that it didn’t make the news.

## Monday, January 2, 2012

### Three Laws of Humanity

Three Laws of Humanity
1. All people want the highest quality of life for the least amount of effort.
2. Each person has a different balancing point between acceptable quality of life and acceptable amount of effort.
3. Different balancing points result in income disparity.

### The Battle of Antietam & the Three Cigars

In the age before electronic communications, the Civil War generals wrote their battle plans and gave them to a clerk to copy and give to couriers who took the orders to the commanders in the field. Lee’s Special Order 191, issued just before the Battle of Antietam, ordered his army to be split with half in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and half in Hagerstown, Maryland. One of Lee’s generals read the order then used the paper to wrap a few cigars. Somehow these three cigars and their wrapping were misplaced and lost.
When the Union army passed over the same land a few days later, two men of the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, First Sergeant John M. Bloss and Corporal Barton W. Mitchell, found the cigars and their precious wrapping.
Had McClellan moved quickly, he might have been able to use his force to defeat one of Lee’s forces then the other, thus crushing the Army of Northern Virginia and any chance the Confederacy had of winning the war. However, McClellan had a “case of the slows,” as Lincoln put it and missed the opportunity.
That doesn’t mean that having Lee’s plans didn’t change the course of the war. With the plans, McClellan was able to adjust his own battle plans and win the day.
But what if a Johnny Reb found the cigars instead of a couple of Billy Yanks? McClellan would have lost that battle. With support in the north dwindling and enthusiasm in the south growing, Lee might have moved deeper into the North and won another battle then another and another.
It’s not difficult to see that the future most powerful nation on the planet nearly ceased to exist due to a simple misplacement of a single piece of paper.